TCP/IP protocol suite and OSI model

Ayush Verma
3 min readFeb 26, 2023

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When it comes to computer networking, two models are often used as a basis for understanding how different networking protocols and technologies fit together: the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model and the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol suite. In this article, we’ll introduce these two models and explore how they relate to each other.

Src: Javatpoint

OSI Model:

The OSI model is a conceptual framework that describes how different networking protocols and technologies should be organized and structured to allow communication between different devices. It is organized into seven layers, each with its own set of protocols, services, and functions:

  1. Physical Layer: This layer defines the physical characteristics of the network, such as the type of cabling, signaling, and data transmission rates.
  2. Data Link Layer: This layer is responsible for providing error-free transmission of data between two devices on the same network. It includes protocols for data framing, error detection, and flow control.
  3. Network Layer: This layer is responsible for routing data between different networks, and for addressing and identifying devices on the network. It includes protocols such as IP (Internet Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), and ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).
  4. Transport Layer: This layer provides end-to-end data delivery between applications running on different devices. It includes protocols such as TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).
  5. Session Layer: This layer establishes and manages sessions between applications running on different devices. It includes protocols for session setup, maintenance, and termination.
  6. Presentation Layer: This layer is responsible for data representation and encoding, such as converting data between different formats and encryption/decryption.
  7. Application Layer: This layer contains the actual applications and services that use the network to communicate with each other, such as email, web browsing, and file transfer.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite:

The TCP/IP protocol suite is the set of protocols and technologies used to enable communication between devices on the Internet. It is organized into four layers:

  1. Network Access Layer: This layer is responsible for providing access to the physical network, such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or DSL.
  2. Internet Layer: This layer is similar to the OSI network layer, and is responsible for routing data between different networks. It includes protocols such as IP (Internet Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), and ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).
  3. Transport Layer: This layer is similar to the OSI transport layer, and provides end-to-end data delivery between applications running on different devices. It includes protocols such as TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).
  4. Application Layer: This layer contains the actual applications and services that use the network to communicate with each other, such as email, web browsing, and file transfer.

Relationship between OSI Model and TCP/IP Protocol Suite:

Although the OSI model and TCP/IP protocol suite are organized differently, they are closely related. In fact, the TCP/IP protocol suite can be thought of as a simplified version of the OSI model, with some of the layers combined or eliminated altogether. For example, the TCP/IP network access layer and internet layer can be thought of as a combination of the OSI physical layer, data link layer, and network layer.

Conclusion:

In summary, the OSI model and TCP/IP protocol suite are two different models used to describe how different networking protocols and technologies fit together to enable communication between devices. While the OSI model is more detailed and has seven layers, the TCP/IP protocol suite is simpler and has only four layers. Understanding these two models can help you better understand how different networking protocols and technologies work together, and can be useful in troubleshooting network issues and designing.

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Ayush Verma

Hello eveyone , this is Ayush from India and I'm pursuing engineering in computer science and working towards my cybersecurity journey .